Morphing of Don Quixote
“Don Quijote de la Mancha is the second most translated book after the Bible.”
– Alfredo Moro
Four Hundred Years of Don Quixote
The twenty-first century marks the 400th anniversary of Miguel de Cervantes’s Don Quixote. According to Professor Eduardo Urbina in the Department of Hispanic Studies at Texas A&M University and the originator and Manager of the Cervantes Project, “Don Quixote has become the most universal of heroes, the father to a myriad of quixotic sons and daughters; a myth and a symbol, an image, and an icon.” He also remarks how the story of Quixote is a “familiar character in many remote lands, even to children, through repeated translations, adaptations, and incarnations in literature.” Quixote, according to Urbina, has been recreated and promoted in 200 films, numerous artistic renderings, musicals, and in over 80 operas.  Professor Alfredo Moro, assistant lecturer at the University of Cantabria in Santander Spain states, “Don Quijote de la Mancha is the second most translated book after the Bible.” In its first hundred years of publication the book was printed numerous times, in cities such as Milan, Brussels, Paris, London, Venice, Dordrecht, Amsterdam, Antwerp, and Rome.
By the 17th and 18th century this is a well-known story, both in Spain and abroad. It is a tale of a bumbling 17th century mad Spanish nobleman who lost his wits by reading too many earlier century books on chivalry, then employs a local peasant named Sancho Panza to be his squire, and sets out to chase imagined antagonists across the Spanish countryside. The two main characters’ out of the box thinking, their madness, their crazed action, has even been termed quixotization and sanchofication.
Salvador de Madariaga coined these terms quixotization and sanchofication, in his 1926 publication Guide to the Reader of Quixote. In the guide he expresses the actions of Quixote and Sancho. Sancho has “growing idealism and enthusiasm for quixotic adventures as a result of this association with Quixote as a process of quixotization. A parallel of this process is Quixote’s increasing accommodation with reality under the influence of Sancho Panza: his sanchification.” Additionally, there is the term Quixotism. Psychology Wiki suggests the term describes “an idealism without regard to practicality – It is also related to naïve romanticism and to utopianism”, while Wikipedia remarks, it “is impracticality in pursuit of ideals, especially those ideals manifested by rash, lofty and romantic ideas or extravagantly chivalrous action”.
Illustrations of the blundering duo can be found within many of the publications, depicting their adventures as described in the text, or more likely, we see the artists, illustrators, or engraver’s interpretations of the text. Typically illustrating Quixote on his horse, wearing medieval armor, with Sancho dressed as his squire, together they are prepared to battle giants and wizards that only Quixote can see. This image of the two was renowned throughout Spain and much of Europe and continues today. It is this image of Quixote we will discuss. Specifically, in 1773, after the first one hundred years of publication Spain wanted to change how the image of Quixote was represented. The Spanish Government no longer embraced ideas of Quixotism, quixotization, or sanchofication. They wished to put an end to Quixote looking like a mad, foolish nobleman, and that his illiterate simpleton squire had more wits about him than Quixote did. Eighteenth century Spain believed the many published images of Quixote and Sancho were a bad reflection on her. In the following sections, we will explore how Spain endeavored to change the image of Quixote.
Spain, in 1759, had a regime change and as a result her new sovereignty challenged many of her traditional ways, including the centuries old image of Quixote and Sancho. By changing Spain’s image, this new regime aimed to change how other countries viewed her as well. One method of change was through the medium of print. Thus, we will explore a part of this change by evaluating and comparing two primary images – frontispieces of Don Quixote. They are
- The pre-regime 1735-Madrid-Antonio Sanz Part I edition, (Fig.1.), Vida, y hechos del ingenioso cavallero – (Don Quixote de la Mancha – Life, and facts of the ingenious Knight Don Quixote of la Mancha),
- The post regime change 1780 Madrid – Don Joaquín Ibarra (1725- 1785) Part I (Fig.3.), El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha – (The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha).
In the comparison, we will investigate not only how the regime change affected Quixote’s image, but also how centuries of Spanish political turmoil, social hierarchy, and financial hardship affected the illustrations and publication quality for each of these editions. Figure 2, is Figure 1 enlarged.
Figure 1, Sanz 1735 Frontispiece
Figure 2, Sanz 1735 Enlarged Frontispiece
Figure 3, Ibarra 1780 Frontispiece
Birth of the Make Over
By using the terms quixotization, sanchofication, and Quixotism to describe the overall image of Don Quixote, I feel the late 18th century Spanish government felt embarrassed and perhaps challenged by Quixote’s and Sancho’s traditionally and widely published foolish descriptions. To Spain, these images left a poor impression of the Country and her countrymen. In 1773, under the new Monarch, the Enlightened King Charles III, Spain reflected on the image of Quixotism which prompted the government, with the king’s approval, to change the image of Don Quixote from the whimsical, eccentric Spanish nobleman who lost his wits, believing himself to be a knight-errant, as illustrated in the 1735 Sanz edition (Fig.1.), into a respectable, if not a somewhat enlightened Spanish gentry, as shown in Ibarra’s 1780 edition (Fig.3.).
Likewise, Figure 3 demonstrates how the Enlightened government used Greco-Roman imagery wishing to connect Don Quixote’s image to the great poets and authors of antiquity. Most remarkable is the absence of Sancho in Ibarra’s frontispiece. Sancho’s disappearance could be a direct result of his growing folk hero popularity in the 17th and early 18th centuries. In the story, Sancho, a common poor Spanish peasant, was able to hold a political position above the noble Quixote, and with his office of power he made sound legal decisions. This success, be it fictional or not, challenged the centuries old Spanish hierarchy of nobles and peasants. At the web site, Cervantes Project, Eduardo Urbina in his introduction piece Don Quixote Illustrated, quotes J. Hartau. “Book illustration is like a hand-mirror in which one can see reflected great historical events, social changes and the movement of ideas down the centuries.” If this is truly the case, the illustrations I have selected should reveal a change in how Don Quixote is portrayed.
The prior century witnessed the decline of the once golden Spanish empire. On three different occasions, King Phillip II declared bankruptcy, 1557, 1575, and 1598. Silver was at the heart of Spain’s wealth, and its flow was in a massive decline. From 1581 to 1630 Spain imported 11,461,000 kilos; then between 1631 and 1660 she imported 2,896,000 kilos of silver. With her income diminishing and her national debt mounting, she could no longer pay her bills or support wars. The Golden Age of Spain was over. By the time Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra published Don Quixote in 1605, Spain was in ominous financial troubles. Decades later this early economic crisis had direct impact on publication cost, i.e., a book’s physical size, paper quality, and the size and number of its illustrations. This monetary situation also dictated the level of skill procured to produce the product. Decades later, this struggling economy is evidenced in Sanzes coarse publication.
In 1735, Antonio Sanz published his version of Don Quixote. María Varea points out in the 18th century, there was a variety of Quixote editions printed in small, cheaper, and more manageable formats. Sanz self-published his edition, which would account for the small, rough-finish woodcut images and the poor quality.According to the Universidad Pontificia Comillas’ webpage, Sanzes low-quality publication is a reflection of Spain’s 1700 slumping economy, stating it is “sad proof of the despondent state to which the arts and industries in Spain had come at this time.”
To combat the early eighteenth century financial disparity of the times, Mark Mcgraw, in his dissertation The Universal Quixote: Appropriations of a Literary Icon, expounds how small volumes like Sanzes Quixote separated Cervantes’ books I and II, “into four pocket-sized books and featured crude images printed on cheap paper and binding materials.” Additionally, he states “woodcut images done by unnamed artists and engravers ensure that these books could be sold at an economical price”. Moreover, he expressed how printing these inexpensive books allowed thousands of Spanish readers to peruse the pages of Don Quixote, even though many readers had only basic levels of literacy. He also felt the woodcut images might have provided additional insight into the storyline.
In retrospect, the 1780 Ibarra edition was commissioned by the Real Compañía de Impresores y Libreros del Reyno – (Real Company of Printers and Booksellers of Reyno). Having a state sponsored company as his backing would imply Ibarra had more funding for the project. When compared to the Sanz edition, the Ibarra illustrations are beautiful, with well-defined crisp large images printed on good quality paper. There are many differences between Sanzes and Ibarra’s frontispieces, and in this discussion, we shall primarily focus on changes made to the background setting and to the appearance of Quixote and Sancho within those images.
Starting with the 1735 Sanz frontispiece (Fig.1.), we have a “vignette”- a small engraving situated at the top of the page. Within the vignette, there are four images and a portrait. The first impression of the vignette is its small in size and low quality. According to Rachel Schmidt, “Placement of the vignette within the page of text highlights the shared graphic nature of printed word and image and blurs the boundaries between writing and reading.”  In the enlarged frontispiece (Fig.2.), the scene looks comical with Don Quixote wearing his medieval armor and “magical” shaving basin hat while mounted on his horse. His medievalesque attire is complete with his lance and shield, while poised as if going for a casual ride. He appears youthful and not as Cervantes depicts him. Instead, Cervantes describes him as, “The age of this gentleman of ours was bordering on fifty; he was of a hardy habit, spare, gaunt-featured, a very early riser and a great sportsman.” Next to Quixote, we find local peasant turned squire Sancho standing next to his donkey; thus, shown physically to be in a lower – more subservient position than the noble Quixote.
The imagery displayed indicates the story’s satire of chivalric romance, but it also displayed a 15th century seigneurial system society where vassals pledged loyalty to their masters; a political system based on rigid social hierarchy and family lineage.  Thus, with Don Quixote mounted on a horse, a symbol of wealth and prestige, and having Sancho placed lower in a more obedient position standing next to his inferior class of transportation we can clearly understand their relationship.
Heroes of the Past
In the Sanz vignette, Quixote is represented as knight errant and behind him on raised pedestals are his 15-16th century Spanish heroes, the famed knights of chivalry, Amadis de Gaula and Rolando. However, by 1605, books of chivalry are no longer in fashion. In the Sanz vignette, these valiant knights are standing equally in a place of honor high on pedestals, above the two would-be heroes Quixote and Sancho. They are not presented in their knightly armor but are stripped of it and are transformed into Roman soldiers. This vignette is a rendition of a 1567 Savery illustration. In the Savery original work, the names of Amadis and Rolando are engraved on the face of the pedestals, located just below their feet. In the Sanz version, the warriors’ names have been left off the pedestals, indicating by 1735 there had been a distancing in Spain – a shift away from these chivalric heroes. Moreover, these two heroes in their Roman gear are looking at each other, their eyes seem to dismiss the presence of Quixote and Sancho.
This scene is set in a Greco-Roman stylized theme of antiquity. These knights turned Roman soldiers are displayed in a place of integrity, reminiscent of honors bestowed to heroes of ancient times. The image provides a feeling of memento classici. This allegorical frontispiece is a visual device created to instill within the reader a feeling this text is tied to neoclassicism. It seems Sanz, and before him Savery, believed by having de Gaula and Rolando wear clothing from the classical period this imagery would connect Quixote to the Renaissance movement and the Age of Enlightenment; in the hopes it would entice the educated elitist to buy the book. Publishers were not ready to totally abandon the traditional image of the armor-clad Quixote though, since most of their inexpensive text was primarily produced for and purchased by the lower class. The Sanz frontispiece vignette of Book II (Fig.4.) demonstrates the publisher wanted to maintain some of the quixotism the reading society had embraced, i.e., the uselessness of their actions – folly, particularly those displayed by irresponsible extravagant chivalrous knights. Book II’s frontispiece is again a variation of Jacob Savery’s 1657 Dordrecht edition.
Figure 4, 1735-Madrid-Sanz-02-003 Book II frontispiece
Sanzes Book II frontispiece is mentioned as it demonstrates the madness of Don Quixote’s actions. In this frontispiece, we see Sancho is placed above Quixote, indicating a shift in their relationship. This image could be considered a challenge to the social structure of 17th and early 18th century Spanish society. Furthermore, the 1657 Dordrecht Savery illustration has the title of Governor engraved under Sancho. In the Sanz frontispiece, the space under Sancho is shown blank. The blank space could represent one of two things; one, it cost the publisher more money for the engraving, which would fit with the economic situation of self-publishing the book or there was a movement in the Enlightened Spanish government to downplay the challenge to their social hierarchy.
By 1780, 45 years after Sanz published his version of Don Quixote, the winds had changed in Spain’s thinking towards Quixote. Quixotism was no longer in favor. Professor of Spanish Literature, Ana Rueda explains how during the 18th century “Quixotism was an object of mockery in Spain and abroad which helps explain why the Spanish Enlightenment deplored that its contemporaries read Cervantes’ novel only for its laughter.” By this time, Spain understood the vast power of Quixote’s imagery and realized many readers both home and abroad viewed her through the books text and illustrations.
Popularity of a Madman
Cervantes understood the popularity and the influence of his Quixote and as a result, 10 years later in 1615, he wrote book II. To further his place in the halls of Spanish literature, he created a conversation in book II between Samson Carrasco and Don Quixote, where Quixote is complaining about a Moorish writer who has rewritten Don Quixote in such a way Quixote feels his image may be distorted. “’No fear of that,’ returned Samson, ‘for it is so plain that there is nothing in it to puzzle over; the children turn its leaves, the young people read it, the grown men understand it, the old folk praise it; in a word, it is so thumbed, and read, and got by heart by people of all sorts, that the instant they see any lean hack, they say, ‘There goes Rocinante.’ And those that are most given to reading it are the pages, for there is not a lord’s ante-chamber where there is not a ‘Don Quixote’ to be found; one takes it up if another lays it down; this one pounces upon it, and that begs for it’”.
There is a parallel here. Spain is starting to feel her image is being distorted through Quixote, and Quixote feels his persona is being slanted by a wayward author. Furthermore, because of Quixote’s success there were many unauthorized publications about the adventures of Don Quixote and Sancho. Additionally, with Quixote’s popularity there were 37 editions published in Spain during the 18th century.
According to Catherine M. Jaffee, Professor of Spanish at Texas State University, “Cervantes thus reflects in the fictional world of his characters the bond his novel had forged between readers across all lines of age, rank, and gender.” And to further promote the importance of Don Quixote, Cervantes pens another scene in which Carrasco is speaking to Quixote, proclaiming in a loud voice, “O flower of knight-errantry! O shining light of arms! O honour and mirror of the Spanish nation!” Thus, we have Quixote representing all of Spain. Eventually, Spain took exception to the image of a mad nobleman living as a knight-errant. To resolve this negative public persona, the Spanish Royal Academy in 1773 declared Quixote to be a work of “great merit” and with permission from Spain’s King Charles III, they commissioned Ibarra and some of the nation’s top artists to produce an official version of Quixote, one which was to be “correct and magnificent.”
The Academy wanted illustrations to accurately replicate the text. To do this, they provided the Ibarra artists with detailed directions on how these new illustrations should represent the new Quixote image. In fact, they were advised to use “extreme measures” to guarantee a level of credibility. According to Schmidt, the Academy appointed a panel of three to oversee the illustrations. They instructed the Ibarra artists to precisely duplicate arms and armor from the Royal armory collection. Moreover, they were told “to consult examples of physiognomy from clay models of ‘popular heads of la Mancha’”. The Academy installed the panel to ensure their new image of Quixote would accurately reflect the text. This action was based on the Academy’s “distrust of the effect of visual representations upon the imagination of naive readers.”
Is It a Classic or Not?
The 1780 Ibarra frontispiece (Fig.4.) illustration is a departure from the 1735 Sanz edition. The first difference is the size of the image. Ibarra’s image is 206mm x 140mm, with a page dimension of 292mm x 212mm, while the Sanz vignette had an image dimension of 56mm x 90mm and a page size of 200mm x 145mm. From the page’s dimensions, one can conclude Ibarra’s edition had better funding. In the figure, we can see the scene has been completely changed from Sanzes frontispiece. This new image has removed the great heroes of chivalry, Amadis de Gaula and Rolando which indicates a complete separation from the past glories of valor. Equally as important, Quixote is clad in the armor of 18th century Spain. His face is well defined, regal, aged, and respectable. His head is covered with his hair and not the well-known shaving basin traditionally worn by a mentally unstable Quixote.
This illustration placed Quixote on a massive Greco-Roman marble type memorial with the title of the book engraved on it; thus, indicating to readers they were to consider this text to have historical ties to the classic texts of antiquity. According to Frederick A. De Armas in his book, Quixotic Frescoes: Cervantes and the Italian Renaissance Art, part of the process to canonize Quixote in the 18th century was the linking of the ancient epics of Homer and Virgil with Don Quixote. Additionally, in the Ibarra edition the “Prologue of the Academy” stated Quixote was a classic, thus telling readers the pages contained within are to be respected as such. According to Schmidt, the writers of this prologue avoided the argument, is it a classic or not, by referring to the alleged undisputed praise of the text amongst “cultured nations.” She continues, “This Characterization of those countries where Don Quixote had already been hailed a classic implied that the work must likewise be proclaimed a classic within the peninsula as well as beyond the Pyrenees in order to establish and defends Spain’s own culture.”
In the small Sanz vignette, Quixote’s facial features are drawn in a rudimentary fashion. His face lacks detail. What you can see is a man who looks young, clean shaven, almost boyish. This absence of features signals his facial construction was of little importance. The focus of the image is the knight-errant and his silly antics promoting the glories and righteousness of the past. On the other hand, the Ibarra image represents Quixote as a man not accustomed to folly. He is poised to defend, with his sword drawn and shield at the ready. To further announce the separation from medieval tales of gallantry, we see in the lower left corner of Figure 4 books of chivalry being burnt, with tales of Amadis de Gaula on top, by a mythological creature – a satyr. Once again, an indication that Greco-Roman knowledge surpasses tales of chivalry. Mcgraw indicates the satyr face is that of Cervantes, and it is he who sets the books of the past alight. This image not only divorces Quixote from past tales of chivalry, but it lacks Sancho’s presence; perhaps indicating Spanish hierarchy is not as important as it once was.
Bueno suggests Quixote represents Spain’s past glories, while Sancho’s image is of Spain’s present. I suggest, if peasant Sancho does represent Spain’s present population, then perhaps there is a political reason for removing Sancho from the frontispiece. Moreover, the change in Don Quixote’s image from the 1735 Sanz edition to the 1780 Ibarra version could be due to changes taking place within Spain. Over the 45-year span between these two editions, there were wars and a regime change. And I believe these changes caused further economic decline and civil unrest which resulted in the way Quixote was reimagined. To understand the impact of how these changes affected the illustrations, we must look back into Spain’s history.
To Go Forward, We Must Go Back
Between 1516 and 1700, Spain was ruled by the House of Habsburg. According to J. H. Elliot, in his book Spain, Europe and the Wider World 1500-1800, “For the best part of two centuries, Spain’s worldwide monarchy was a relatively loose structure, but the situation changed with the advent of the Bourbon dynasty in 1700.” In 1700, King Charles II died childless. By not having an heir, Charles created chaos for the throne’s succession. What would become of Spain and who would rule her became a hotly debated issue. To many European powers, Spain by the end of the 17th century was the object of much envy.
It must be remembered, Spain’s rise to glory started with her unification in 1479. To some, this was the birth of Her Golden Age which lasted to the mid to late 1600s. B. W. IFE, states in The Cambridge Companion to Cervantes, “In a little over a hundred years Spain had undergone an astonishing transformation from a collection of intermittently warring kingdoms to become an emerging nation state and had then rapidly gone on to acquire a world-wide empire.”
The result of an absent heir caused King Louis XIV (1638-1718) of France to follow the Treaty of London (1700). This treaty forced him to place an Austrian heir, his grandson Phillip, on the Spanish throne. This action eventually led Louis XIV to use force to ensure his grandson’s position in wearing the Spanish crown. Philip’s accession in Spain provoked the 14-year War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), which continued until the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) forbade any future possibility of unifying the French and Spanish thrones. This proved to be an expensive war. In the end, Spain lost Gibraltar, Minorca, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and Milan.
Phillip V reigned for 45 years. Agustin Gonzalez Enciso states, “In some parts of Spain this conflict is notorious because of the undesired effects it had there. For this reason, the general image held of the reign is very negative, for it was then that traditional privileges and fueros (charters of regional privileges) were abolished.” Furthermore, Enciso reasons, “Immediately preceding Hapsburg kings, known for the development of the [Spanish] empire and its decline, were followed by a sort of ill-defined bridge passage before the reformist and modernising reign of Charles III began.”It was during this time of turmoil that Sanz published his 1735 version of Don Quixote.
Spain, with her long suffering political, social, and economic decline jeopardized many publishers. These past events must be taken in account when analyzing the publication quality of Sanzes work. We must consider his own economic situation, i.e., his ability to buy paper, hire artists, engravers, and bookmakers. We must also consider what kind of expendable income poor Spaniards had during this period. Perhaps Sanz could have produced a better-quality book but the market could not support it.
Upsetting the Boat
Charles III (1716-1788), before being appointed King of Spain in 1759, was already ruler over Naples and Sicily, as King Charles VII. A reign he gained by force and the spoils of war. “In 1734, during the War of the Polish Succession, the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily were conquered by the armies of Charles, son of King Philip V of Spain. This brought the Spanish Bourbon dynasty to power, which would rule Naples and Sicily until 1861.” Charles reigned in Naples for twenty-five years. During his reign as king, he ended the aristocrat’s practices of feudalism, thus granting vassals access to court. He was also interested in the historic past and was the first patron in the excavations of Pompeii and Herculaneum. These excavations uncovered and promoted fantastic artifacts of great artistic and historic value, which in turned fueled the Age of Reason. 
In 1759 he was appointed King of Spain. A time in which Spain was in the midst of the Seven Years War with England (1756-1763). According to Alejandro Vidal Crespo’s article, Charles III of Spain: The Enlightened King and Madrid’s Best Mayor, “Charles surrounded himself with enlightened statesmen, like Esquilache, Campomanes, Floridablanca, and the Duke of Aranda, to undertake major reforms in social structures, as well as infrastructures and facilities.”
King Charles III wanted transformation and saw the value of the Enlightenment to bring change to Spain. With King Charles III and his Age of Reasoning, one could surmise how the Spanish government wanted to change the image of Don Quixote, from that of a mad man who loved the past glories of chivalry, into a modern man who defended principles. To some, Charles III is remembered for the admission of foreign thinkers and the removal of the Jesuits in 1767, while others regarded him as the greatest monarch of science since the fifteenth century. During his reign, Charles created much grief for the rich nobles as well as his poor peasants. Being a man of Enlightened thinking, he was progressive towards the bourgeoisie. Charles III, with his Bourbon thoughts, was upsetting a well-established social structure; one based on nobility and peasantry. His new laws helped establish a period in which a small middle-class emerged via commerce and industry. These new laws were perceived as a threat to the established order. Note, 18th century Spanish society was “obsessed with luxurious French fashions and with ostentatious nobility titles while deficient in education, [and] prone to pretentiousness.”
A Time for Distrust and Suspicion
Nicholas Henderson, quoting Macaulay in his article, Charles III of Spain: an Enlightened Despot, remarks, “The favour he [Charles] had shown early on towards the bourgeoisie, his concern for the poor, and the reforming zeal of his Ministers had all helped to generate distrust amongst the nobility and clergy who sensed a serious threat to their considerable privileges and immunities.” Moreover, in Spain during this period, natural elements caused a prolonged drought which resulted in unusually high prices for goods, and coupled with ongoing wars this combination of events caused great civil unrest; as seen in the 1766 Madrid munity.
This contrast between nobles and peasants was felt throughout Spain; there was anxiety and distrust by the nobles and others in traditional places of power. They feared the Guilds, like the printers and artisan, now controlled too much of the economy. At this time, “the aristocracy and Catholic Church paid no taxes, and peasants were expected to pay very high taxes on their land. This tax structure de-incentivized peasant agricultural production, and many peasants decided to abandon the rural life and move to urban areas (which were weakened by disease and plagues).”In contradiction to the political system outlined above, Spanish society was still conducted “on an estates basis in the widest sense, drawing mainly on farming wealth and harnessing this wealth under a seigniorial system.” With a new ruler, political unrest, nervous nobles, and the State treasury running low on funds from supporting too many wars, we can now understand how and why Sanzes frontispieces were of lower quality than Ibarra’s works.
Where is Sancho?
This brings us to the next segment. The absence of Sancho in Ibarra’s frontispiece. If, like Bueno suggested, Sancho the peasant represented the future, then perhaps with civil unrest brewing, Ibarra’s appointed review board decided that Sancho could no longer be painted as a fool. However, they also saw the dangers of him being elevated above land-owning gentry like Quixote. Sancho presented a quandary to the establishment. What to do about Sancho? Rueda states, “Sancho receives high praise from the intellectuals of the Spanish Enlightenment for his well-grounded resolutions as Governor of the Insula Barataria.”
I believe the Real Compañía who employed Ibarra, knew Sancho was considered a folk hero to many of the poor; an underdog who prevailed. According to Rueda, there were many adaptation and continuations of Don Quixote. “Moved by the novel’s satirical spirit, 18th century writers imitated Quixote to remedy all kinds of wrongdoings in their society and advance new lines of thinking.” Furthermore, she remarks, “continuations capitalize on Cervantes’s second hero, Sancho Panza, who outlives Don Quijote and usurps his protagonism.” Rueda believes Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda’s 1614 continuation titled Segundo tomo del Ingenioso Hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha, known as Quijote de Avellaneda is “the only ‘true’ continuation of the Cervantine work not written by Cervantes.” This book was reprinted in Spain in 1732 and in 1805. These continuations, such as Avellaneda’s work, ensured Sancho’s steadfast common judgment and his plain reasoning would find new positions of power and respect. In these renditions, Quixote was continuously seen as a mad noble wearing a knight’s armor, while his humble peasant squire Sancho is placed into positions of authority; such as governor or mayor, where he can change people’s lives for the better.
In these stories, Sancho gains the ability to wield genuine power for the good. Governor Sancho was a man of the people who found himself in a position above his station and being simple and incorruptible, he used his office to help others instead of himself. Some of his tasks were to “favor farmers, facilitate commerce, reward the virtuous, respect the Church, and deal effectively with the problem of vagrancy. In this regard, Sancho incarnates the quixotic ideal of utopia while the authors are intent on setting right –also quixotically– all that is wrong in their century.” It would seem the appointed board of overseers understood most of the Spanish population was either illiterate or barely literate. That this group would not understand the text, therefore they did not need to change Sancho’s action within the story. However, they realized the power within the illustrations. Since Quixote and Sancho had grown into folk hero status, the board realized any foolish images of Quixote or Sancho could possible lead to deflationary or social issues within the State.
I believe the removal of Sancho, the local boy made hero, from the frontispiece was to appease the nobles; assuring them the poor would remain at the bottom rung of the latter. Also, by removing Sancho, the board removed any dreams the repressed may have about upward mobility. The Ibarra’s frontispiece has many images of satire not discussed, but the image of Quixote has been completely morphed from the simple, crude drawing found in Sanzes illustration into a man of honor and a symbol of Spain’s integrity. Frederick A. de Armas, wrote in his book, Writing for the Eyes in the Spanish Golden Age, “Writing, during the Spanish Golden Age, often has a strong visual component. Poets and other writers of fiction appealed to this sense in particular since it was thought that visualization was a key to memory. Thus, the actions and images they were creating would be remembered more easily.” With de Armas’ statement in mind, we begin to understand the power these early 17th and 18th century illustrations had on the literate and the illiterate.
By reviewing and comparing the frontispieces of Sanzes 1735 work to that of 1780’s Ibarra, the power of illustrations on a population was demonstrated. Not only did illustrations change people’s thinking, we also noted how centuries of Spanish political turmoil, her social hierarchy and financial hardship affected the socio-economic situation in eighteenth century Spain, and how these events guided the production and publication quality of these illustrations. Additionally, Don Quixote’s success, both home and abroad, prompted the late 18th century Spanish government to consider the traditional images of Quixote and Sancho as a poor impression of Spain. As Don Quixote’s fame and the birth of Quixotism spread outside of Spain, she could no longer embrace the image of a back-dated, mad Spanish nobleman wearing armor and a shaving basin as a hat. Both Quixote and Sancho were considered a poor impression of her.
However, Quixotism alone did not promote an image change in Don Quixote. The real issue lay within the instability of the Spanish government, the Enlightenment of King Charles III, and the need to tie Spain’s glory to Antiquity. To show her European brothers she was not an antiquated old knight; that she too had ties to the greats thinkers of ancient times. As Hartau narrates, “book illustration is like a hand-mirror in which one can see reflected great historical events, social changes and the movement of ideas down the centuries.” The two frontispieces discussed with their 45-year span represent “the hand mirrors” of their times. The imagery they reflect is not of Don Quixote but is one of Spain’s socio-economic problems within the eighteenth-century.
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4: TAMU Cervantes Project. (1995). Cervantes Project. Retrieved from Texas A&M Education http://cervantes.dh.tamu.edu/dqiDisplayInterface/displayMidImage.jsp?edition=488&image=1735-Madrid-Sanz-02-003.jpg
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- Urbina, E. Cervantes Project, (2013). Retrieved from Textual Iconography of Don Quixote: http://cervantes.tamu.edu/V2/CPI/index.html. ↑
- Saliba, N. a. Don Quijote de la Mancha, (2016). Retrieved from TVM / PBS – Public Broadcasting Services Ltd,G’Mangia,Malta: https://www.tvm.com.mt/en/news/don-quijote-de-la-mancha-is-the-second-most-translated-book-after-the-bible/. ↑
- TAMU Cervantes Project. Cervantes Project, (1995). Retrieved from Texas A&M Education http://cervantes.tamu.edu: http://cervantes.tamu.edu/V2/CPI/index.html, ↑
- Mancing, H. The Cervantes Encyclopedia. Vol_II. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004). ↑
- Psychology Wiki. (n.d.). Quixotism. Retrieved from Psychology Wiki: http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Quixotism#cite_note-0 ↑
- Wiktionary, quixotism, (2018). Retrieved from Wiktionary: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/quixotism. ↑
- Urbina, E., Cervantes Project, (2013, Aug 20). Retrieved from Textual Iconography of Don Quixote: http://cervantes.tamu.edu/V2/CPI/index.html. ↑
- Hutchinson, M. G., Early Economic Thought in Spain, 1177-1740 (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2015), (2011, 03 11). Retrieved from Online Library of Liberty: http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2739. ↑
- Ibid. ↑
- Varea, M. E., Antonio Sanz (1735), (2015). Retrieved from Universidad Pontificia Comillas – http://www.comillas.edu/: http://www.comillas.edu/es/biblioteca/exposiciones-virtuales/exposicion-cervantes-biblioteca/quijotes-destacados/%207769-quijote-antonio-sanz. ↑
- Ibid. ↑
- Ibid. ↑
- Mcgraw, M. D., The Universal Quixote: Appropriation of a Literary Icon, (2013). Retrieved from oaktrust.library.tamu.edu: oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/…/Mcgraw-Dissertation -2013.pdf, 146. ↑
- Mcgraw, M. D., The Universal Quixote: Appropriation of a Literary Icon, (2013). Retrieved from oaktrust.library.tamu.edu: oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/…/ Mcgraw-Dissertation -2013.pdf,146. ↑
- Mcgraw, M. D., The Universal Quixote: Appropriation of a Literary Icon, (2013). Retrieved from oaktrust.library.tamu.edu: oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/…/ Mcgraw-Dissertation -2013.pdf,163. ↑
- Cervantes, M, Don Quixote (illustrated & annotated) – The Unabridged Classic Ormsby Translation fully illustrated by Gustave Doré, (e-artnow Editions, 2013), Kindle Edition, 923-924. ↑
- Levin, P., Our Worldviews Student Edition. (Toronto: Thomson/Duval, 2007). ↑
- Canavaggio, J., Cervantes, (New York: W.W. Norton 1990). ↑
- Schmidt, R. L.,Critical Images : the Canonization of Don Quixote Through Illustrated Editions of the Eighteenth Century. (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1999). ↑
- Ibid. ↑
- Rusda, A.,The Squire as Hero: Sancho Panza in Eighteent-Century Continuations of Don Quixote, (Dieciocho 40:1 Spring, 2017), 59. Retrieved from Dieciocho XVIII: http://faculty.virginia.edu/dieciocho/40.1/. ↑
- Cervantes, M., Don Quixote (illustrated & annotated) – The Unabridged Classic Ormsby Translation fully illustrated by Gustave Doré. (e-artnow Editions, 2013), Kindle Edition, 8839-8844. ↑
- TAMU Cervantes Project. (1995). Cervantes Project. Retrieved from Texas A&M Education http://cervantes.tamu.edu: http://cervantes.tamu.edu/V2/CPI/index.html ↑
- Jaffe, C. M, Quixote and Quixotism in the Hispanic Enlightenment: Introdiction, (Dieciocho 40:1 Spring, 2014), 53-54. ↑
- Cervantes, M,. Don Quixote (illustrated & annotated) – The Unabridged Classic Ormsby Translation fully illustrated by Gustave Doré.( e-artnow Editions, 2013). Kindle Edition, 9221. ↑
- Schmidt, R. L. Critical Images : the Canonization of Don Quixote Through Illustrated Editions of the Eighteenth Century. (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1999). 149. ↑
- Ibid, 150. ↑
- Mcgraw, M. D., The Universal Quixote: Appropriation of a Literary Icon, (2013). Retrieved from oaktrust.library.tamu.edu: oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/…/ Mcgraw-Dissertation -2013.pdf, 141. ↑
- Schmidt, R. L. Critical Images : the Canonization of Don Quixote Through Illustrated Editions of the Eighteenth Century. (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1999),150. ↑
- Mcgraw, M. D., The Universal Quixote: Appropriation of a Literary Icon, (2013). Retrieved from oaktrust.library.tamu.edu: oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/…/ Mcgraw-Dissertation -2013.pdf, 141. ↑
- TAMU Department of Hispanic Studies, Cervantes Project, (1995). Retrieved from Texas A&M Education http://cervantes.dh.tamu.edu/dqiDisplayInterface/displayMidImage.jsp?edition=488&image=1735-Madrid-Sanz-01-001.jpg. ↑
- TAMU Department of Hispanic Studies. Cervantes Project, (1995). Retrieved from Texas A&M Education http://cervantes.dh.tamu.edu/dqiDisplayInterface/displayMidImage.jsp?edition=39&image=1780-Madrid-Ibarra-01-001-f.jpg. ↑
- De Armas, F. A, Quixotic Frescoes : Cervantes and Italian Renaissance Art. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006), 139. ↑
- Schmidt, R. L., Critical Images : the Canonization of Don Quixote Through Illustrated Editions of the Eighteenth Century. (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1999), 139. ↑
- Ibid. ↑
- Schmidt, R. L., Critical Images : the Canonization of Don Quixote Through Illustrated Editions of the Eighteenth Century.( Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1999),. 139. ↑
- Mcgraw, M. D., The Universal Quixote; Appropriation Of A Literary Icon, (2013). Retrieved from oaktrust.library.tamu.edu: oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/…/Mcgraw-Disseration -2013.pdf, 141. ↑
- Bueno, G. Don Quixote,Mirror of the Spanish Nation, (2010). Retrieved from fgbueno.es/: http://www.fgbueno.es/ing/gbm/2005quix.htm. ↑
- Elliott, J. H., Spain, Europe & the Wider World, 1500-1800. (New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press, 2009). ↑
- Falkner, J., The War of the Spanish Succession 1701-1714. (Havertown: Pen and Sword, 2015), xiii. ↑
- Encyclopedia Britannica, Golden Age Spanish Literature, (2018). Retrieved from Encyclopedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/art/Golden-Age-Spanish-literature. ↑
- Cascardi, A. J., The Cambridge Companion to Cervantes, (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2002.), 12. ↑
- Falkner, J., The War of the Spanish Succession 1701-1714. (Havertown: Pen and Sword, (2015). ↑
- Ibid. ↑
- Pitt, H. G. “The Pacification of Utrecht.”The New Cambridge Modern History, edited by J. S. Bromley, vol. 6,. (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press,1970). ↑
- Enciso, A. G., Philip V; Economic and Social Reform in Spain in the Reogn of the First Bourbom King, (2003). Retrieved from www.unav.edu: https://www.unav.edu/documents/29056/6784817/PHILIP+V+booking.pdf. ↑
- Ibid. ↑
- Historic Places, The Kingdom of Naples, Part 24: Charles VII (1734-1759), (2014, June 21). Retrieved from Historic Places: http://places.historicbuildingsct.com/?p=1760. ↑
- Crespo, A. V., Charles I’ll of Spain: the Enlightened King and Madrid’s ’Best Mayor, (2015, December). Retrieved from Banca March: http://www.bancamarch.es/recursos/doc/bancamarch/20150105/201592472/informe-mensual-diciembre-2015-historia-en.pdf. ↑
- Ibid. ↑
- Henderson, N. (n.d.). Charles III of Spain; Enlightened Despot, Part One, History Today: London, 18 no.10, (Oct 1, 1968), 673, Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.proxy1.library.jhu.edu/docview/1299017982?accountid=11752. Retrieved from Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.proxy1.library.jhu.edu/docview/1299017982?accountid=11752. ↑
- Rusda, A., The Squire as Hero: Sancho Panza in Eirgteenth-Centery Continuation of Don Quixote, (Dieciocho 40:1 Spring, 2017), 54-67. Retrieved from Dieciocho XVIII: http://faculty.virginia.edu/dieciocho/40.1/. ↑
- Henderson, N. (n.d.). Charles III of Spain; Enlightened Despot, Part One, History Today: London, 18 no.10, (Oct 1, 1968): 673, Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.proxy1.library.jhu.edu/docview/1299017982?accountid=11752. Retrieved from Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.proxy1.library.jhu.edu/docview/1299017982?accountid=11752. ↑
- Ibid. ↑
- Columbia College, Historical Context for Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes, (2013). Retrieved from Columbia College, The Core Curriculum: https://www.college.columbia.edu/core/node/1764. ↑
- Enciso, A. G., Philip V: Economic and Social Reform in Spain in the Reign of the First Bourbon King, (2003). Retrieved from www.unav.edu: https://www.unav.edu/documents/29056/6784817/PHILIP+V+booking.pdf. ↑
- Rusda, A., The Squire as Hero: Sancho Panza in Eirgteenth-Centery Continuation of Don Quixote, (Dieciocho 40:1 Spring, 2017), Retrieved from Dieciocho XVIII: http://faculty.virginia.edu/dieciocho/40.1/, 61. ↑
- , Rusda, A., The Squire as Hero: Sancho Panza in Eirgteenth-Centery Continuation of Don Quixote, (Dieciocho 40:1 Spring, 2017), Retrieved from Dieciocho XVIII: http://faculty.virginia.edu/dieciocho/40.1/ 54. ↑
- Rusda, Rusda, A., The Squire as Hero: Sancho Panza in Eirgteenth-Centery Continuation of Don Quixote, (Dieciocho 40:1 Spring, 2017), Retrieved from Dieciocho XVIII: http://faculty.virginia.edu/dieciocho/40.1/, 56. ↑
- Ibid. ↑
- Rusda, A., The Squire as Hero: Sancho Panza in Eirgteenth-Centery Continuation of Don Quixote, (Dieciocho 40:1 Spring, 2017). Retrieved from Dieciocho XVIII: http://faculty.virginia.edu/dieciocho/40.1/, 61. ↑
- Rusda, A., The Squire as Hero: Sancho Panza in Eirgteenth-Centery Continuation of Don Quixote, (Dieciocho 40:1 Spring, 2017). Retrieved from Dieciocho XVIII: http://faculty.virginia.edu/dieciocho/40.1/, 60. ↑
- Schmidt, R. L., Critical Images : the Canonization of Don Quixote Through Illustrated Editions of the Eighteenth Century. (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1999). ↑
- De Armas, F. A., Writing for the Eyes In the Spanish Golden Age, (Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 2004), 7. ↑
- Urbina, E., Cervantes Project, (2013, Aug 20). Retrieved from Textual Iconography of Don Quixote: http://cervantes.tamu.edu/V2/CPI/index.html. ↑